Munich on young booters’ minds

first_imgThis year, the Philippines will send three girls and five boys to the Bangkok AJFC in July, all culled from the ANYFI organized in partnership with the Philippine Football Federation (PFF) and The Henry V. Moran Foundation (THVMF).“Through the ANYFI, we’re giving kids the chance to get the best training possible with Bayern Munich and help them pursue their dreams of becoming professionals and national team mainstays someday,” said Allianz PNB chief operating officer Alex Grenz during the media launch at Century Park Hotel Manila.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Jo Koy draws ire for cutting through Cebu City traffic with ‘wang-wang’ Long before Cristiano Ronaldo, Lionel Messi and Pele became global football stars, the indoor event futsal was their sport of choice.The second Allianz National Youth Futsal Invitational (ANYFI), which opened Friday in Iloilo and Cebu, is giving teenaged players the same chance to hone their skills and realize their dreams—like taking part in an FC Bayern Munich training camp in Germany.ADVERTISEMENT ‘Stop romanticizing Pinoy resilience’ LATEST STORIES P16.5-M worth of aid provided for Taal Volcano eruption victims — NDRRMC Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew But first, they have to play for their local teams in the 12-, 14- and 16-Under divisions for boys and girls of the ANYFI.After the Iloilo and Cebu legs and the Dipolog elimination over the weekend, the ANYFI will go to Naga and Baguio on Monday, Metro Manila (May 5 and 6), Naga, Cagayan de Oro and Davao (May 4 and 5), back to CDO (May 12 and 13) and Bacolod (May 16 and 17).FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownFive Filipino boys were sent to the four-day Allianz Junior Football Camp (AJFC) in Bali, Indonesia, last year. Of the 49 participants from the Philippines, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Singapore, 15 were picked to go to Munich, including Filipinos Jan Meir Mitra of La Salle Zobel, and Aeron Tenollar from Baguio City.Bayern greats Giovane Élber and Klaus Augenthaler led the selection process. Volcano watch: Island fissures steaming, lake water recedingcenter_img Truck driver killed in Davao del Sur road accident Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Green group flags ‘overkill’ use of plastic banderitas in Manila Sto. Niño feast Scientists seek rare species survivors amid Australia flames Alab, Alapag on threshold of ABL glory MOST READ In fight vs corruption, Duterte now points to Ayala, MVP companies as ‘big fish’ View commentslast_img read more

I became a black woman in Spokane. But, Rachel Dolezal, I was a black…

first_imgRachel Dolezal is, after this week, a symbol to many African Americans of the separation of blackness from black people; to me, she is an example of how American society simultaneously devalues the individuality of black women and us as a community to the point that the performance of black womanhood is preferred over the people. If blackness can simply be worn or performed, then every white woman with a weave and a cause, every white girl with a snap and a little attitude, can supplant the lived experiences of what it is to become a black woman: the journey of discrimination, the camaraderie of sisterhood, discovering the deep sense of responsibility and weight of the world, and ultimately finding the inner strength and acceptance that can only be built through struggle.Rachel Dolezal may have perfected her performance of black womanhood, and she may be connected to black communities and feel an affinity with the styles and cultural innovations of black people. But the black identity cannot be put on like a pair of shoes. Our external differences from the white majority might be how others categorize us as black, but it’s the thread of our diverse lived experiences that make us black women.Dolezal’s specious claims to black ancestry and faux black identity could not have been sustained and she would not have been able to pass if black womanhood were seen and understood as more than skin – or weave – deep. Wearing black womanhood was apparently even enough for Dolezal’s “fellow” black leaders in Spokane, Washington, who turned a blind eye to what the wider world now recognizes as her all-but laughable claims of racial identity, whether out of fear of rocking the boat or plain Northwestern niceness. Her charade could have only been maintained in a town (and within a society) with simplistic, stereotypical conceptions of blackness – that blackness is a shade on the range on olive to dark chocolate, a set of idioms delivered in a cadence from which American English derives its slang, and any number of bodily characteristics or mannerisms familiar across the globe, among others. And yet, while black Americans have long embraced a diverse array of lineages as kin, simply looking the part and faking the rest doesn’t cut it. I was born in the middle of Spokane’s first (and only) black mayor’s tenure: a celebrated leader who black people worked hard to elect, and example of “acceptable” black leadership, Mayor Jim Chase once told the local paper that he “never knew much discrimination in Spokane.” While that was perhaps true for him, it was not my family’s experience, nor the experience of the black people who lived through segregation through the 1970s in Spokane. Though segregation was no longer enshrined in law in the 1980s when I was growing up, black folks still lived almost exclusively on the east side of town and in the historical neighborhoods built for railroad laborers. My Midwestern white mother and black Puerto Rican father had moved to Spokane for college and defied the unspoken segregation by starting their family in a working class north side neighborhood away from the black enclave, but hoping for the best. My father left the picture shortly after I was born and my mother navigated the discrimination we faced in school and throughout town – I became familiar with the meaning of “nigger” quite early in life.But when I was 14, I gave up the relaxers and transitioned into rocking my natural kinky-ish afro. It instilled a new kind of confidence in me: I could not hang my head and wear this beautiful crown. My mother had not raised me to be an invisible, go-along-to-get-along gal, and, though I still harbored jealousy of my white peers with their incessant hair flipping, I decided to stand out instead of try and fail to fit in. I wore bright, creative clothing; I embraced my love of dance, of song, of sports, of speaking truthfully about race with little care for whether people attributed any of it to my blackness or to me. To be able to get to a place where I could be myself, I felt powerful: I wanted to do and be everything and, as I learned more about the history of the Atlantic slave trade, African Diaspora, and white privilege, I wanted to tell these white people about themselves.In Spokane in general, I rarely saw black men coupled with black women; more than a few men in our small black community had white wives and girlfriends, while the black women always seemed to be single. Naive, I imagined that, on the tightly-knit east side, there were churches full of black women who were coupled with and loved by black men. But on the streets of Spokane, in the public spaces at festivals, in restaurants, and wherever else I looked, black and white men alike were always more interested in white women than women who looked like me; what I took from those years were that black women were far from desirable partners.To be a black young woman in Spokane was, for me, to be rejected, isolated and left to find my own way. Becoming the black woman I am today was not about learning a performance, it was not about certain clothing or my hair texture; it came from first being a black girl, from the trauma of rejection and isolation and its transformation into a kind of self-taught solitary pride, from learning to preserve my own sense of true self.Dolezal managed to put on an identity – that of a black woman – in a way that renders invisible the experiences that actually forged for us our identities as black women. She presented to the world the trappings of black womanhood without the burden of having to have lived them for most of her life. She represented us and gained status in both black and white communities as one of us, even though she could have worn her whiteness and talked to white people about their racism – something sorely needed in a town like Spokane.Had she really understood the history of black women in America, Dolezal would have recognized that she is perpetuating a fetish for black women’s bodies that devalues actual black women while celebrating our parts when attached to the right (white) form. But she was not alone in this act of playing black and benefiting from it. Since black womanhood is apparently all in the look, our society would rather have white, former Disney pop stars twerk, talentless celebrities with enlarged backsides and their equally talentless siblings with swollen lips than celebrate the black woman’s form with the person who carries it. Black women learn that we are not desirable, that we are invisible, and yet we are imitated by the world’s Dolezals and in our popular culture. Little black girls like me could never have passed for white – and would’ve been ridiculed if we tried – but anyone with the right accessories can now seemingly claim to be black women when it suits them.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

FIBank US$4M Theft Case, 4 Former Employees Plead Not Guilty

first_imgFour of the 10 former employees of the First International Bank (FIB) pleaded not guilty yesterday to charges of money laundering, theft of property and criminal conspiracy brought against them by their employers during the trial in Criminal Court ‘C’ at the Temple of Justice.Africanus Freeman together with Robert Cummings, Jermain Tegli and Aurelie Tamba’s not guilty pleas came immediately after their indictment was read to them for the first time in two years in open court, thereby shifting the burden of proof on the prosecutors to establish the guilt during the trial.Granting the separate trial request, Judge Peter Gbeneweleh declared that the submission of the prosecutors for separate trial for the four defendants to which their respective counsels interposed no objection was granted and since the rest of the co-defendants are at large their case was also proceeded with as assigned.It was also surprising to note yesterday that state lawyers did not raise any objection to a request filed by their legal counsels to have the accused tried separately from the six co-defendants believed to be on the run.Those absconding, the court said, include; Angie Brooks, Kebbeh Kulah Klark, Richard Gboyah, Beyan Dadzi and Victoria Yakubu.Co-defendant Ngadi Warity, was not seen in court yesterday prompting Judge Gbeneweleh to instruct his sheriff to serve a writ of arrest with an indictment on Warity, and have her arrested and brought before the court to answer to the multiple offenses against her as contained in the indictment.In a swift, dramatic motion, Judge Gbeneweleh went ahead to set aside the bail bond that was secured on behalf of the accused by Sky Insurance Company to prevent them from being incarcerated, which was also intended to ensure their day to day appearance in court whenever they were needed for their case.Setting aside their bail, the Criminal Court Judge announced that the defendants’ bail bond was withdrawn following their continued absence despite efforts made by the court and their respective legal counsels to have them appear for the hearing.He went on to instruct his clerk “ to issue a writ of arrest with a commitment and place same in the hands of the sheriff to arrest and detain them at the Monrovia Central Prison where they would remain pending the hearing and determination of their case so that they cannot escape the bailiwick of this court.”Judge Gbeneweleh’s action also came after lawyers representing the accused informed the court that they had made substantial efforts to locate their clients without success.Another drama at the court was when the state lawyers asked the court to allow them to make some modification to the indictment that was already read to the defendants, who later pleaded not guilty.They explained that they made a mistake in the indictment by using economic sabotage, instead of money laundering, and asked the court’s approval to modify the charges.Defending their decision, they cited Sub Title (1) Section 15.80 Sub. Paragraph, (a, b and c) which they said, related to economic sabotage and that the modification should reflect chapter 15, section 15.2, of the anti-money laundering and terrorist funding Act of 2012.They explained that the act was approved April 29, 2013, published by Authority of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Liberia on May 2, the same year.They went on to argue that “the provision supports count one of the indictments as opposed to the provision reflected by commission of said offence.”In counter argument, the defense team said that the procedure adopted by the prosecution was strange to amend the indictment why they have commenced with the trial.They further argued that if the prosecutors wanted to amend the indictment, they should have to first prepare a formal withdrawal of the document to give his clients the opportunity to know about their changes.However, Judge Gbeneweleh granted the prosecution request to change the initial definition of economic sabotage to money laundering. Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Govt did not negotiate VAT on education in good faith – Ram

first_img…dubs recent meeting “a total waste of time”Social activist and Attorney-at-Law Christopher Ram has accused the Government of giving parents a raw deal on the recent Value Added Tax (VAT) on education consultation, and it was a total waste of time. Ram, who joined stakeholders in another protest held outside the Education Ministry’s Brickdam office on Wednesday, said the people who attended felt disrespected.Stakeholders has vowed to continue their protestThe outspoken lawyer told Guyana Times that he had no hope that the Government would make any changes even though it promised to review the policy in 2018.Reflecting on what took place at the consultation held at the National Cultural Centre on Friday, April 7, Ram said that Prime Minister Moses Nagamootoo came with a prepared speech and a final decision. “It was an abuse and an insult to the parents, and everybody who attended there and felt that…look we were invited to a genuine consultation. That we would be listened to and that the matter would be discussed dispassionately at Cabinet,” he opined.Ram maintains that the Government was too quick to implement VAT on education without researching the impact and addressing the many concerns of those likely to be affected.“This is seen as a political thing. We can’t afford to be seen as weak. That’s the test for this Government and that is regrettable. This is about children’s education. This should not be about political strength and political image,” he added.Meanwhile, Director of Nations Incorporated, Dr Brian O’Toole told Guyana Times his institution has already seen cases where students have dropped out primarily because of the increases caused by VAT.Dr O’Toole claims that 10 per cent of students pursuing studies under the Association of Business Executives (ABE) programmes have dropped out because they could not afford the increase.“And what will happen to them? They are going to add to the ranks of the unemployed of Guyana. What a wonderful victory that is. Is that a victory?” he asserted.The Nations Director also took issue with Nagamootoo’s prepared speech. O’Toole said that was the main reason people decided to walk out during his speech, because they were convinced that a decision against their favour was already made.A student who attends Nation’s Sixth Form College, Othneil Lewis told this publication that while he has not dropped out of school yet, he did see that becoming a reality soon. He spoke about the need for Government to reconsider their policy, because Lewis claimed that his parents may no longer be able to afford to pay the extra school fees. Lewis alluded to the fact that he was not the only one affected by this, because many parents continued to make sacrifices to send their children to a private educational institution, where the teaching and training were of a higher standard.Private education became subject to VAT on February 1 as a measure of the 2017 National Budget. However, there has been public outcry against the measure, including protests organised by private schools. A petition which garnered close to 2000 signatures was also sent to Government.Opposition Leader and former President Bharrat Jagdeo has condemned this approach by the Government, noting that it was a demonstration that the Administration lacked clear vision on the education sector.Many other people and institutions have come out criticising Government over its decision to charge VAT on education – a policy that is not practised anywhere else in the world which strives for economic betterment.last_img read more

Puppy love

first_imgSAUGUS They’ve shared four homes, held hands as they toured nearly all of Europe, kept a successful business going and raised two children and 3,800 Labrador retriever puppies. On Wednesday, George Bruegger, 90, and his wife, Josephine, 84, will celebrate 60 years of marriage, and they’re finally semi-retiring. Josephine, or Jo as she likes to be called, said it still surprises her to hear how long they’ve been married. Their love is evident in the gentle looks he gives her or the way she repeats sentences for him in case he didn’t hear the first time. And there’s that special connection that really bonds this couple. “There is something special about helping a Labrador deliver her puppies, making sure they’re crying and breathing, and putting the puppies up against their momma’s nipples,” Jo said. Raising puppies is more than a job for the Brueggers. It’s a passion. They breed and sell the dogs and frequently hear back from new owners who invariably send pictures. No corner of the kennel offices of Bruegger Labs has been left unmarked by these photographs. Running out of room on his walls, George has filled 18 photo albums with pictures of puppies with their new owners. “Everyone went home with the best dog,” George said. George’s dogs – yellow, chocolate and fox-red Labrador retrievers – have made celebrity status, too. Many of the puppies have been used in commercials and films. “Every time we see a commercial with Labradors, we think it must be one of ours,” Jo said. Celebrity owners of Bruegger dogs include Kevin Costner, “Cheers” star George Wendt and even Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger. “I asked Maria (Shriver) for a picture, but she said she couldn’t give me one for security reasons,” George said. The Brueggers still help deliver the puppies, but these days their daughter raises them at her ranch in Modesto. “Raising puppies is a lot of work, and when you’re old you get tired,” George said. But he still seems to be keeping age at bay. He tends to his 11 Labradors by himself, feeding and showering them and giving them their vaccines. There’s no chance he’ll hire a kid in the neighborhood to help out. “Youngsters don’t know a dog’s tail from its head.” Jo finds that her daily dose of Starbucks espresso helps keep her on her toes. The two celebrated their 60 years together during the weekend with a small gathering of family and friends – a list they say has become shorter over the years. “We have outlived many friends,” Jo said. But as long as they have each other, this loving couple expects to be OK. “We are doing just fine,” Jo said. (661) 257-5254 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! “I can’t believe we made it this far sometimes,” she said with a smile. She was an energetic 24-year-old secretary when she met George, then a successful aerospace-engineering executive. Their dashing good looks as young adults are revealed in Jo’s photograph collection, and each was popular with the opposite sex before the two met each other, but their connection was instant. “I knew I’d marry her,” George said. “She’s just a great lady.” “He was fun,” she added. last_img read more


first_imgHUNDREDS of pilgrims brought in the New Year by attending a religious festival in Co Donegal last night.The annual Doon Well celebrations began at St Columba’s Chapel in Termon at 8pm with a Holy Hour.A Vigil Mass followed at 9pm. And at 10.30pm pilgrims joined a procession from the chapel to Doon Well for a Midnight Rosary.Camera crews from the BBC2 ‘This World’ series filmed the event for a forthcoming series focusing on faith. © 2011, all Rights Reserved The copying, republication or redistribution of Content, including by framing or similar means, is expressly prohibited by law. Follow us on us on anything on HUNDREDS TAKE PART IN FESTIVAL AT DOON WELL was last modified: January 1st, 2012 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Doon Wellreligious festivalvigillast_img read more


first_imgDONEGAL Boxer and triple European champion Jason Quigley wooed Miriam O’Callaghan on her TV show tonight.The Ballybofey man was a special guest of the RTE show alongside boxers John Joe Nevin, Paddy Barnes and Michael Conlan.All four returned from the European Championships with medals – with our Jason winning his first senior title after golds at underage level. “It was unbelievable; words can’t describe how you feel after all the hard work and dedication you put in,” Jason told Miriam when she asked about his ‘gorgeous’ gold medal.Miriam pointed out to the audience that the Donegal man had to beat the world number one, the world number two and the world number four – telling him: “You had to win it the hard way.”Said Jason: “I got the hard end of the draw and I never looked past the first opponent that I had but when I look back now I beat the best to get it.”The boxer spoke of his pride that more than 2,000 people had turned out to welcome him home. “It was massive for such a small area,” he said.“The whole town got a great buzz and they were all following my fights all the way to the final and it gave everybody a lift in the town.”Jason was also involved in some banter with Paddy Barnes who admitted that he had described the Twin Towns man’s two junior gold as “kids’ medals.”And Michael teased fellow Belfast man Paddy Barnes saying he was jealous because he had gone away on holiday with Jason!DONEGAL GOLDEN BOY JASON WOOS MIRIAM ON HER TV SHOW was last modified: July 14th, 2013 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:DONEGAL GOLDEN BOY JASON WOOS MIRIAM ON HER TV SHOWlast_img read more

This year, gore (no, not that one) is back

first_img One trend-watcher sees it this way: “Gore we can manage is very much on fad right now, as we feel the increasing need to become familiar with bad things – bad things that don’t get the best of us,” says Marian Salzman, director of strategic content for the advertising agency JWT Worldwide. “I think it’s also why we love our crime television. While the solutions are not as black and white as the days of “Dragnet,” there is still a sense that good will beat evil in those shows.” Retailers say they first sensed an increased appetite for darker Halloween themes at trade shows last winter – and stocked up their inventory as a result. At the national Halloween Warehouse chain, there’s been big interest in the “Gothic Manor” section, where customers can find capes, chokers with studs and costumes that include the “emperor of evil” and “dark vixen,” a hooded black velvet dress. These “slightly edgier themes” are particularly popular with teens and young adults, says Malinda Behrens, vice president of brand development for Party City, which runs the Halloween Warehouse chain. A big seller at the Spirit Halloween Superstores is a life-size, razor-fingered Freddy Krueger character, which utters well-known phrases from the still-popular 1984 film “Nightmare on Elm Street.” “People are easing back into it,” says Tonia Farinha, the stores’ marketing director. Still, those who work in the fright industry say they’ve also been careful not to take it too far. Lynton V. Harris now avoids such words as “terror” and “horror” in the theatrical arena shows he produces and directs at Halloween and other times of the year. “Unfortunately, those words became part of everyday language, as opposed to entertainment,” he says. His productions have included “Madison Scare Garden” in New York, which he closed after the 9-11 attacks. Harris has since taken his shows to other parts of the world, last year to Philadelphia, where he’ll open the “Nightmare X-treme Scream Park” at the Wachovia Spectrum arena this week. “We rely on being clever, instead of cliches,” Harris says. “For example, we don’t have any chain saws. My blood budget will be the smallest of anyone in the country.” 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! Bunny Lavalliere’s recent Halloween costumes have been mostly “fluffy and fairy-like,” as she puts it – but not this year. The 19-year-old fashion design student is making an outfit that pushes the boundaries of gore. From the front, it will have a sullen zombie look, but when she turns around, there will be fake protruding bones and organs in the back. It’s another sign that, after taking a respite, darker Halloween themes are making a comeback. “I’m big on surprises; this one is going to have amazing amounts of blood,” Lavalliere says, sounding a bit gleeful about the costume she’s making at her school, the Art Institute of California, San Francisco. Her inspiration came from the revival of the slasher movie – genre classics such as “Friday the 13th” and “Halloween” that her generation is flocking to see, along with newer horror films, including “Saw” and the remake of “House of Wax.” AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWalnut’s Malik Khouzam voted Southern California Boys Athlete of the Week Retailers and trend-watchers also are sensing a heightened comfort level with scarier costumes and decorations, a full return to the dark side after many revelers toned down their outfits following the 9-11 terrorist attacks and subsequent anthrax threats in 2001. “It was tough for a while,” says Dave Dering, a 39-year-old resident of Lawrenceville, N.J., who’s a longtime fan of Halloween. Known as “Uncle Deathy” to family and friends, even he displayed only one yard decoration four years ago. It was a monster carrying an ax – and an American flag – to indicate Dering’s support for the victims of the World Trade Center attacks and their families. It turned out to be one of the most patriotic Halloweens on record, with many children dressing as firefighters and police officers, a nod to the ranks in New York. Of course, recent months have had their share of sad news, too – from ongoing casualties in Iraq to a seemingly constant string of natural disasters. But this time, Dering and others see scary, sometimes kitschy Halloween traditions as an escape from tough realities, rather than potentially offensive. “It takes some steam off; it’s a diversion – a way to have a little fun,” says Dering, who’s going all out to decorate his yard and home this year. Dering also hosts an annual Halloween bash. last_img read more

Sserunkuma pens contract extension at Vipers SC

first_img Tags: dan sserunkumaExpress FCgor mahiavipers sc Sserunkuma joined Vipers in 2017. (PHOTO/Courtesy)Proven goal scorer, Dan Sserunkuma has decided to renew his stay at Vipers SC.The former Uganda Premier League (UPL) top scorer is understood to have signed a two-year deal that will see him feature for the Venoms until 2021.The news of Sserunkuma extending his contract was announced on Viper’s official website;“Vipers Sports Club is delighted to announce that Dan Sserunkuma has signed a new contract which will keep him at the club until June 2021 with an option to extend.” Read a statement on the Venoms website.On signing his new deal, Sserunkuma said:“It’s a massively proud moment for me. I’m really looking forward to the coming season now and working hard to have an impact here again.“I am excited about the challenges that lie ahead of us as we prepare for a very busy period in the season. I would like to thank the management and the coaching staff for their continued support.”Sserunkuma joined Vipers in February 2017 and has since gone on to help them secure one league title (2017/18). In that same season, he won the top scorer’s award, scoring 17 goals.Currently, the dread-locked striker is featuring for his third UPL side, having previously played at both Victors and Express FC.He started out Express FC in 2008, featuring for the Red Eagles for two seasons until 2010. Sserunkuma then moved to Victors for who he played for one season.In 2011, he moved to Kenya side Bandari. At Bandari, he played the 2011/12 and once again moved, this time to Gor Mahia.At ‘Kagolo’, he played two seasons, winning the 2013 and 2014 Kenyan Premier League titles and also top-scoring in the later season.From there, he joined Tanzanian giants Simba for who he featured in the 2014/15 season before moving to Armenian side Ulisses in 2015.After just a single season in Armenia, he returned to Kenya and signed for Bandari FC. At Bandari, he lasted just a season before returning to Uganda and playing for Express FC in the first half of the 2017/18 season.After scoring 6 goals in 11 games, he moved to Vipers SC, where he has been ever since.Sserunkuma is full Uganda Cranes international, featuring in 15 games and scoring 8 goals since his debut in 2013.Comments last_img read more

Questions to Ask a Reductionist Neurobiologist

first_imgCan the totality of the brain be described in terms of its neurons?  Is consciousness an artifact of the movement of signals in the brain?  Can the complexity of the brain be described in terms of its evolutionary history?  Does the hardware define the software that runs on it? Gy�rgy Buzs�ki attempted to address these questions from an evolutionary standpoint in a “Connections” essay in Nature last week.1Perhaps nowhere is the truism ‘structure defines function’ more appropriate than for the brain.  The architecture of different brain regions determines the kinds of computations that can be carried out, and may dictate whether a particular region can support subjective awareness.  Also, the degree of architectural complexity may determine susceptibility to neurological and psychiatric diseases – complex architectural schemes being more prone to disruption than simpler ones.  Understanding how such structure-function relationships govern brain operations requires a systems-level approach that explores how local computation relates to global patterns of neural activity.He went on to describe the different kinds of networks that parts of the brain can construct: local modules, as in the cerebellum; random connections, as in the hippocampus; and combination “scale-free” networks, as in the cerebral cortex.    Though Buzsaki attempted to engage a systems approach, his answers were reductionist in the sense of describing all brain functions in terms of their physical architecture.  The “structure” of consciousness, therefore, in his view, is structurally based.  He did not speak as if this might challenge the validity of his own opinions on the subject.1Gy�rgy Buzs�ki, “Connections: The structure of consciousness,” Nature 446, 267 (15 March 2007) | doi:10.1038/446267a.It is one thing to measure, describe and understand the physical action of neurons, but quite another to reason about them.  If reason can be subsumed under the structure of neurons, how can I know it is reason?  If consciousness is merely an artifact of firing patterns in a network, how do I know I am not just dreaming?    Whenever evolutionary neurobiologists, who are obligate physicalists, attribute consciousness and reason to networks of physical parts with a presumed evolutionary history, we need to ask them some pointed questions.  Let’s take some of his statements and play with them.“I propose that the distinct network architectures translate into unique functional consequences.”Is a proposition an artifact of a hardware network, or does it have an external validity?“In cortical networks, a dynamic balance between excitation and inhibition gives rise to an array of network oscillations involving neuronal populations of varying sizes.”Was that thought an excitation or an inhibition?  Suppose the pattern is different next time.  Will the first thought evaporate?“This self-organized, or so called ‘spontaneous’ activity is the most striking and yet perhaps least appreciated feature of the cerebral cortex.”Where is the “appreciation module” in this structure?  How can it be appreciated if it is self-organized?  What is a self?  Whose self can demand that I appreciate something?“Without inhibition, excitatory activity caused by any one stimulus would ripple across the entire neuronal network and a confused jumble of overlapping signals would result.”How would an observer of similar signals in a computer chip be able to reverse-engineer the software that produced it?  Would the engineer attempting the feat be an artifact of his own circuits?“Inhibitory interneurons and the rhythms they generate can temporally and spatially structure the activity of excitatory cell assemblies to ensure that information flows to just the right place at just the right time.”Please define “right” in this view.  This seems to imply goal-directed software that is directing the patterns.  What is information?  What directs the inhibitory neurons to inhibit, and when?  How can we know that the right inhibitions occured to generate your thoughts on this subject?  Would different inhibitory rhythms generate a completely different opinion?  If so, on what basis would other humans subject to their own rhythms decide that your opinion has more – or less – validity than that of a schizophrenic?“The interaction and interference of multiple brain rhythms often gives rise to the appearance of ‘noise’ in an electroencephalogram.  This noise is the most complex type known to physics and reflects a metastable state between the predictable behaviour of oscillators and the unpredictability of chaos.”In a physicalist view, who determines what is noise and what is signal?“A special case is the hippocampus whose highly recursive connection matrix is thought to function as a large ‘autoassociator’, allowing the reconstruction of entire episodes from remembered fragments.”What does “is thought to” mean?  Who thinks?  Is thinking valid?  What is determining the end result of these associations to produce the “right” reconstruction?“I suggest that the local-global wiring of the cerebral cortex and the perpetual, self-organized complex dynamics it supports are necessary ingredients for subjective experiences.”If experiences are artifacts of network activity, who decides what is subjective?  Could this statement itself be considered subjective?  Does objectivity exist?“If they manage to perturb ongoing activity for a sufficiently long time in a big enough population of neurons, their effect will be noticed; that is, we will become conscious of them.”Whoa.  Define consciousness.  If my neurons focused on that sentence, and thought about it, how am I to know your proposition or my thoughts about it are verifiable? “Complex neuronal networks are a useful product of brain evolution but come at a price.  Greater resources and volume are required to sustain long-distance wiring in complex networks, and the risks of malfunction increase with complexity.”Please define useful.  Please define malfunction.  Can you defend the proposition that a mindless, aimless process of evolution will inevitably converge on truth and integrity?“Timing errors present particularly difficult problems in complex networks, because of limits to how much information can be conveyed through restricted numbers of long-range conduits.  Not surprisingly, diseases of the cerebral cortex are manifold – including epilepsies, Alzheimer’s and schizophrenia.”What is information?  What is disease?  Is disease a continuum or an on-off state?  If the former, who decides at what point something is normal and something else is a timing error?  If the latter, and schizophrenics were in the majority, could they lock up the minority in the insane asylum?“One of the greatest challenges left for systems neuroscience is to understand the normal and dysfunctional operations of the cerebral cortex by relating local and global patterns of activity at timescales relevant for behaviour.”Is a pattern of activity equivalent to consciousness?  Could the patterns of impulses in a mechanical machine wired like the brain and connected to a power source be considered conscious?  Would those patterns be able to judge the validity of your propositions, and if so, who would judge the debate?  Suppose a group of robots reasoned that their circuits had been designed, therefore the humans’ circuits must also have been designed; would you accept their verdict?Here is another case of a scientist with the Yoda Complex (09/25/2006 commentary).  He stands at a pulpit outside of his own brain and speaks wisdom to the rest of us stuck inside our brains.  This is a technical foul.  He cannot play the game of trying to answer the age-old mind-body problem* unless he first acknowledges the independent validity of reason and the laws of logic.  If his subjective thoughts can be completely described by the firing of neurons and the timing of rhythms of excitory/inhibitory signals, then his opinions are self-refuting and necessarily false.  His own system, i.e., just crashed.  We’ve seen the Darwin malware do this many times.  The only solution in these cases is to reformat the hard drive, load the ID disk and reboot.(Visited 8 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more